Set-16 Reading Comprehension For SBI PO and SBI Clerk 2019 | Must Go Through These Questions

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Directions:(1-10) Read the passage and answer the given questions:

European medieval knowledge about Asia beyond the reach of Byzantine Empire was sourced in partial reports, often obscured by legends, dating back from the time of the conquests of Alexander the Great and his successors. In 1154, Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi created what would be known as the Tabula Rogeriana at the court of King Roger II of Sicily. The book, written in Arabic, is a description of the world and world map. It is divided into seven climate zones and contains maps showing the Eurasian continent in its entirety, but only the northern part of the African continent. It remained the most accurate world map for the next three centuries, but it also demonstrated that Africa was only partially known to either Christians, Genoese and Venetians, or the Arab seamen, and its southern extent was unknown. Knowledge about the Atlantic African coast was fragmented, and derived mainly from old Greek and Roman maps based on Carthaginian knowledge, including the time of Roman exploration of Mauritania. The Red Sea was barely known and only trade links with the Maritime republics, the Republic of Venice especially, fostered collection of accurate maritime knowledge.

Indian Ocean trade routes were sailed by Arab traders. Between 1405 and 1421, the Yongle Emperor of Ming China sponsored a series of long-range tributary missions. The fleets visited Arabia, East Africa, India, Maritime Southeast Asia, and Thailand. But the journeys, reported by Ma Huan, a Muslim voyager and translator, were halted abruptly after the emperor’s death, and were not followed up, as the Chinese Ming Dynasty retreated in the haijin, a policy of isolationism, having limited maritime trade.

A series of European expeditions crossing Eurasia by land in the late Middle Ages marked a prelude to the Age of Discovery. Although the Mongols had threatened Europe with pillage and destruction, Mongol states also unified much of Eurasia and, from 1206 on, the Pax Mongolica allowed safe trade routes and communication lines stretching from the Middle East to China. A series of Europeans took advantage of these in order to explore eastward. Most were Italians, as trade between Europe and the Middle East was controlled mainly by the Maritime republics.

Christian embassies were sent as far as Karakorum during the Mongol invasions of Syria, from which they gained a greater understanding of the world. The first of these travelers was Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, who journeyed to Mongolia and back from 1241 to 1247. About the same time, Russian prince Yaroslav of Vladimir, and subsequently his sons, Alexander Nevsky and Andrey II of Vladimir, traveled to the Mongolian capital. Though having strong political implications, their journeys left no detailed accounts. Other travelers followed, like French André de Longjumeau and Flemish William of Rubruck, who reached China through Central Asia. From 1325 to 1354, a Moroccan scholar from Tangier, Ibn Battuta, journeyed through North Africa, the Sahara desert, West Africa, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East and Asia, having reached China. In 1439, Niccolò de’ Conti published an account of his travels as a Muslim merchant to India and Southeast Asia and, later in 1466-1472, Russian merchant Afanasy Nikitin of Tver travelled to India.

The geographical exploration of the late Middle Ages eventually led to what today is known as the Age of Discovery: a loosely defined European historical period, from the 15th century to the 18th century, that witnessed extensive overseas exploration emerge as a powerful factor in European culture and globalization. Many lands previously unknown to Europeans were discovered during this period, though most were already inhabited, and, from the perspective of non-Europeans, the period was not one of discovery, but one of invasion and the arrival of settlers from a previously unknown continent. Global exploration started with the successful Portuguese travels to the Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores, the coast of Africa, and the sea route to India in 1498; and, on behalf of the Crown of Castile (Spain), the trans-Atlantic Voyages of Christopher Columbus between 1492 and 1502, as well as the first circumnavigation of the globe in 1519-1522. These discoveries led to numerous naval expeditions across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans, and land expeditions in the Americas, Asia, Africa, and Australia that continued into the late 19th century, and ended with the exploration of the polar regions in the 20th century.

1. The options describe some of the travels of Europeans made possible by the Pax Mongolica. Choose the option which is not true or cannot be inferred from the passage.

2. Which of the following is a major policy adopted by the Ming dynasty after the death of Emperor Yongle of the Ming Dynasty?

3. Select the odd one out from the following options.

4. The ” Age of discovery” between the 15th and 18th century was mainly applicable only to the Europeans because

5. Which of the following is not true about the book “Tabula Rogeriana”?

6. In which era did the Europeans first cross Eurasia by land?

7. Choose the most appropriate synonym for the word in bold.
OBSCURED

8. Choose the most appropriate synonym for the word in bold.
PERSPECTIVE

9. Choose the most appropriate antonym for the word in bold.
FOSTER

10. Choose the most appropriate antonym for the word in bold.
PILLAGE

 

 Check the answer below

 

 

  • Directions:(1-10) Read the passage and answer the given questions:

    European medieval knowledge about Asia beyond the reach of Byzantine Empire was sourced in partial reports, often obscured by legends, dating back from the time of the conquests of Alexander the Great and his successors. In 1154, Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi created what would be known as the Tabula Rogeriana at the court of King Roger II of Sicily. The book, written in Arabic, is a description of the world and world map. It is divided into seven climate zones and contains maps showing the Eurasian continent in its entirety, but only the northern part of the African continent. It remained the most accurate world map for the next three centuries, but it also demonstrated that Africa was only partially known to either Christians, Genoese and Venetians, or the Arab seamen, and its southern extent was unknown. Knowledge about the Atlantic African coast was fragmented, and derived mainly from old Greek and Roman maps based on Carthaginian knowledge, including the time of Roman exploration of Mauritania. The Red Sea was barely known and only trade links with the Maritime republics, the Republic of Venice especially, fostered collection of accurate maritime knowledge.

    Indian Ocean trade routes were sailed by Arab traders. Between 1405 and 1421, the Yongle Emperor of Ming China sponsored a series of long-range tributary missions. The fleets visited Arabia, East Africa, India, Maritime Southeast Asia, and Thailand. But the journeys, reported by Ma Huan, a Muslim voyager and translator, were halted abruptly after the emperor’s death, and were not followed up, as the Chinese Ming Dynasty retreated in the haijin, a policy of isolationism, having limited maritime trade.

    A series of European expeditions crossing Eurasia by land in the late Middle Ages marked a prelude to the Age of Discovery. Although the Mongols had threatened Europe with pillage and destruction, Mongol states also unified much of Eurasia and, from 1206 on, the Pax Mongolica allowed safe trade routes and communication lines stretching from the Middle East to China. A series of Europeans took advantage of these in order to explore eastward. Most were Italians, as trade between Europe and the Middle East was controlled mainly by the Maritime republics.

    Christian embassies were sent as far as Karakorum during the Mongol invasions of Syria, from which they gained a greater understanding of the world. The first of these travelers was Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, who journeyed to Mongolia and back from 1241 to 1247. About the same time, Russian prince Yaroslav of Vladimir, and subsequently his sons, Alexander Nevsky and Andrey II of Vladimir, traveled to the Mongolian capital. Though having strong political implications, their journeys left no detailed accounts. Other travelers followed, like French André de Longjumeau and Flemish William of Rubruck, who reached China through Central Asia. From 1325 to 1354, a Moroccan scholar from Tangier, Ibn Battuta, journeyed through North Africa, the Sahara desert, West Africa, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East and Asia, having reached China. In 1439, Niccolò de’ Conti published an account of his travels as a Muslim merchant to India and Southeast Asia and, later in 1466-1472, Russian merchant Afanasy Nikitin of Tver travelled to India.

    The geographical exploration of the late Middle Ages eventually led to what today is known as the Age of Discovery: a loosely defined European historical period, from the 15th century to the 18th century, that witnessed extensive overseas exploration emerge as a powerful factor in European culture and globalization. Many lands previously unknown to Europeans were discovered during this period, though most were already inhabited, and, from the perspective of non-Europeans, the period was not one of discovery, but one of invasion and the arrival of settlers from a previously unknown continent. Global exploration started with the successful Portuguese travels to the Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores, the coast of Africa, and the sea route to India in 1498; and, on behalf of the Crown of Castile (Spain), the trans-Atlantic Voyages of Christopher Columbus between 1492 and 1502, as well as the first circumnavigation of the globe in 1519-1522. These discoveries led to numerous naval expeditions across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans, and land expeditions in the Americas, Asia, Africa, and Australia that continued into the late 19th century, and ended with the exploration of the polar regions in the 20th century.

    1. Question

    The options describe some of the travels of Europeans made possible by the Pax Mongolica. Choose the option which is not true or cannot be inferred from the passage.

    Ans:5
    Options A, B, C and E can be inferred from the fourth paragraph of the passage. From the fourth paragraph we can observe that André de Longjumeau travelled to China and not India. Thus, option D is incorrect.
  • 2. Question

    Which of the following is a major policy adopted by the Ming dynasty after the death of Emperor Yongle of the Ming Dynasty?

    Ans:3
    Towards the end of the second paragraph, it is given that the Ming Dynasty after the death of Emperor Yongle retreated in haijin, a policy of isolationism. Thus, option C is true from the passage.
    Option A is not true as we cannot infer that Maritime trade was prohibited completely. Option B is not a major policy decision and is not the right choice.
    We cannot infer from the passage that haijin means to ban sea trade. Thud, option D is also no true.
  • 3. Question

    Select the odd one out from the following options.

    Ans:1
    Options B, C, D and E occurred during or after the “Age of Discovery” as given in the last paragraph of the passage whereas Option A occurred during the middle ages as given in the 4th paragraph of the passage. Thus, A is the odd one out.
  • 4. Question

    The ” Age of discovery” between the 15th and 18th century was mainly applicable only to the Europeans because

    Ans:2
    Refer to the following lines in the last paragraph,” Many lands previously unknown to Europeans were discovered during this period, though most were already inhabited, and, from the perspective of non-Europeans, the period was not one of discovery, but one of invasion and the arrival of settlers from a previously unknown continent.” From this we can infer that option B is the right choice.
  • 5. Question

    Which of the following is not true about the book “Tabula Rogeriana”?

    Ans:3
    From the first paragraph of the passage we can see that options A, B and D are true. But it is given in the first paragraph that the map did not cover Africa entirely. Thus, option C is not true from the passage.
  • 6. Question

    In which era did the Europeans first cross Eurasia by land?

     Ans:5
    In the third paragraph it is given that “A series of European expeditions …. Age of Discovery”. From this line we can only infer that Europeans crossed Eurasia by land during the Middle Ages but it was not necessarily the first time they did this. Thus, option E is the right choice.
  • 7. Question

    Choose the most appropriate synonym for the word in bold.
    OBSCURED

    Ans:4
    The meaning of the word “obscured” from the passage is something that is ”distorted”. The only word from the options that has similar meaning is “blurred”.
  • 8. Question

    Choose the most appropriate synonym for the word in bold.

    PERSPECTIVE

    Ans:1
    From the context we can infer that the meaning of the word “Perspective” from the context of the passage is “outlook” or “viewpoint”. Only option A- “angle” has meaning similar to this and is thus the right choice.
  • 9. Question

    Choose the most appropriate antonym for the word in bold.

    FOSTER

    Ans:3
    From the context we can infer that the meaning of the word “Foster” in the passage is “strengthen”. Thus, the word “dampen” which means to weaken is the most appropriate synonym from the options.
  • 10. Question

    Choose the most appropriate antonym for the word in bold.
    PILLAGE

    Ans:1
    The meaning of the word “Pillage” from the options is “ to rob”. Thus, “bestow” which means to “give” is the most appropriate antonym.