Set-19 Reading Comprehension For SBI PO and SBI Clerk 2019 | Must Go Through These Questions

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Directions:(1-10) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

We all know that the Atomic Theory was developed by an English chemist and physicist John Dalton. The Atomic Theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms. However, a theory of atoms was actually formulated 2,500 years before Dalton by an Indian sage and philosopher, known as Acharya Kanad.

Acharya Kanad was one of the earliest Indian philosophers (about 600 BCE) and the founder of the Vaisesika School. He was born in Prabhas Kshetra in Gujarat, India. His real name was Kashyap. He was famously known as “Kanad”, as ‘Kan’ in Sanskrit means ‘the smallest particle ‘because of his great advice to the peoples that “a single grain of rice was as important as all the valuable riches in this world”.

Kanad pursued his fascination with the unseen world and with conceptualizing the idea of the smallest particle. He began writing down his ideas and teaching them to others. Thus, people began calling him ‘Acharya’ (the teacher), hence the name Acharya Kanad.

He was the first person in the world to discuss atoms and molecules. Kanad was walking with food in his hand, breaking it into small pieces when he realized that he was unable to divide the food into any further parts, it was too small. From this moment, Kanad conceptualized the idea of a particle that could not be divided any further. He called that indivisible matter Parmanu, or anu (atom).

He told to the people that no matter how small the object could be, it is still a part of the universe. Individual grain might seem useless but the collection could serve as someone’s meal. He said that “every object of creation is made of atoms which in turn connect with each other to form molecules.” He found out that the universe is made up of “kana” means atoms. He studied atomic theory and found the way atoms move and react with each other.

Acharya Kanad proposed that this indivisible matter could not be sensed through any human organ or seen by the naked eye and that an inherent urge made one Parmanu combine with another. When two Parmanu belonging to one class of substance combined, a dwinuka (binary molecule) was the result. This dwinuka had properties similar to the two parents Parmanu.

Kanad suggested that it was the different combinations of Parmanu which produced different types of substances. He also put forward the idea that atoms could be combined in various ways to produce chemical changes in presence of other factors such as heat. He gave blackening of earthen pot and ripening of fruit as examples of this phenomenon.

Acharya Kanad founded the Vaisheshika School of philosophy where he taught his ideas about the atom and the nature of the universe. He wrote a book on his research “Vaisheshik Darshan” and became known as “The Father of Atomic theory.” Kanad is reporting to have said “Every object of creation is made of atoms which in turn connect with each other to form molecules.”

1. Which of the following is NOT true about Acharya Kanad?

2. What is the author’s main motive behind writing this passage?

3. Which of the following are names of ‘atoms’?
I: anu
II: dwinuka
III: parmanu
IV: vhyuanu
V: kana

4. Ripening of fruit is

5. Why do two atoms combine to form a molecule?

6. Which of the following is the closest in meaning to the word ‘pursue’ as used in the passage?

7. Which of the following is the closest in meaning to the word ‘indivisible’ as used in the passage?

8. Which of the following is the closest in meaning to the word ‘inherent’ as used in the passage?

9. Which of the following is opposite in meaning to the word ‘discrete’ as used in the passage?

10. Which of the following is the most opposite in meaning to the word ‘binary’ as used in the passage?

 

 Check the answer below

 

 

Directions:(1-10)Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

We all know that the Atomic Theory was developed by an English chemist and physicist John Dalton. The Atomic Theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms. However, a theory of atoms was actually formulated 2,500 years before Dalton by an Indian sage and philosopher, known as Acharya Kanad.

Acharya Kanad was one of the earliest Indian philosophers (about 600 BCE) and the founder of the Vaisesika School. He was born in Prabhas Kshetra in Gujarat, India. His real name was Kashyap. He was famously known as “Kanad”, as ‘Kan’ in Sanskrit means ‘the smallest particle ‘because of his great advice to the peoples that “a single grain of rice was as important as all the valuable riches in this world”.

Kanad pursued his fascination with the unseen world and with conceptualizing the idea of the smallest particle. He began writing down his ideas and teaching them to others. Thus, people began calling him ‘Acharya’ (the teacher), hence the name Acharya Kanad.

He was the first person in the world to discuss atoms and molecules. Kanad was walking with food in his hand, breaking it into small pieces when he realized that he was unable to divide the food into any further parts, it was too small. From this moment, Kanad conceptualized the idea of a particle that could not be divided any further. He called that indivisible matter Parmanu, or anu (atom).

He told to the people that no matter how small the object could be, it is still a part of the universe. Individual grain might seem useless but the collection could serve as someone’s meal. He said that “every object of creation is made of atoms which in turn connect with each other to form molecules.” He found out that the universe is made up of “kana” means atoms. He studied atomic theory and found the way atoms move and react with each other.

Acharya Kanad proposed that this indivisible matter could not be sensed through any human organ or seen by the naked eye and that an inherent urge made one Parmanu combine with another. When two Parmanu belonging to one class of substance combined, a dwinuka (binary molecule) was the result. This dwinuka had properties similar to the two parents Parmanu.

Kanad suggested that it was the different combinations of Parmanu which produced different types of substances. He also put forward the idea that atoms could be combined in various ways to produce chemical changes in presence of other factors such as heat. He gave blackening of earthen pot and ripening of fruit as examples of this phenomenon.

Acharya Kanad founded the Vaisheshika School of philosophy where he taught his ideas about the atom and the nature of the universe. He wrote a book on his research “Vaisheshik Darshan” and became known as “The Father of Atomic theory.” Kanad is reporting to have said “Every object of creation is made of atoms which in turn connect with each other to form molecules.”

1. Question

Which of the following is NOT true about Acharya Kanad?

Ans: 2
Sentence B is incorrect. In the last passage, the author says that he became known as ‘The father of Atomic theory’ and not ‘The father of Chemistry’. All other sentences are true and have been mentioned in the passage. Thus, B is the correct answer.

2. Question

What is the author’s main motive behind writing this passage?

Ans: 5
A is incorrect as he didn’t mention the origins of atoms. He merely mentioned the origins of the Theory of atoms.
B is also incorrect as the main focus of the passage is not the differences between atoms and molecules.
C is also incorrect as the author didn’t mention the evolution of Atomic theory in the passage.
D is also incorrect. Although the author does so, but it’s not the main focus of the passage. Through the passage, the author tries to make his readers aware about Acharya Kanad and his work on the Atomic theory.
Thus, E summarizes the essence of the passage better and hence is the correct answer.

3. Question

Which of the following are names of ‘atoms’?
I: anu
II: dwinuka
III: parmanu
IV: vhyuanu
V: kana

Ans: 3
In the sixth passage, the author clearly mentions that ‘dwinuka’ is the name Kanad gave to molecules. The word ‘vhyuanu’ hasn’t been mentioned in the passage. Thus, it can’t be associated to atoms. ‘Anu’, ‘Parmanu’, and ‘kana’ have been mentioned as the other names of atom. Thus, C is the correct answer.

4. Question

Ripening of fruit is

 Ans: 4
In the seventh para, the author says that “He also put forward the idea that atoms could be combined in various ways to produce chemical changes in presence of other factors such as heat. He gave blackening of earthen pot and ripening of fruit as examples of this phenomenon.”
From this both A and C can be inferred. Thus, D is the correct answer.

5. Question

Why do two atoms combine to form a molecule?

Ans: 1
Nothing can be inferred about B as the author didn’t comment on entropy of the system. Similarly, C and D are also not mentioned. In the sixth para the author says that “Acharya Kanad proposed that this indivisible matter could not be sensed through any human organ or seen by the naked eye and that an inherent urge made one Parmanu combine with another.”
From this A can be inferred. Thus, A is the correct answer.

6. Question

Which of the following is the closest in meaning to the word ‘pursue’ as used in the passage?

Ans: 5
‘Pursue’ in the context of the sentence means to follow or chase. Thus, E is the correct answer.

7. Question

Which of the following is the closest in meaning to the word ‘indivisible’ as used in the passage?

Ans: 4
Indivisible means something that cannot be broken further. Although B, C, and E have meaning on the similar lines, ‘infrangible’ means impossible to break or separate into parts, which is exactly what indivisible means. Thus, D is the closest in meaning.

8. Question

Which of the following is the closest in meaning to the word ‘inherent’ as used in the passage?

Ans: 2
‘Inherent’ means existing in something as a permanent, essential, or characteristic attribute. Among the options, ‘intrinsic’ means the same thing.

9. Question

Which of the following is opposite in meaning to the word ‘discrete’ as used in the passage?

 Ans: 3
‘Discrete’ means individually separate and distinct. Among the options, ‘connected’ is its antonym.

10. Question

Which of the following is the most opposite in meaning to the word ‘binary’ as used in the passage?

Ans: 4
Binary means relating to, composed of, or involving two things. Among the options, ‘singular’ means opposite to it.